Most of the critical Keyglove controller code is written to compile inside the Arduino environment (v1.0 or later). Until this release is totally stable, other platforms will be secondary, unless somebody else wants to spearhead the effort.
Arduino is great, but some see it the "Visual Basic" version of AVR C. This distribution is built to be compiled directly with avr-gcc and flashed directly avrdude. Development is partially complete and built on top of Dean Camera's excellent LUFA platform, but it's on hold right now until the primary Arduino platform version is finished.
AVR C is what I know, but it's not the only option. PIC, ARM, MSP430, anything you can think of is possible since the code is all open. Do you want the Keyglove code to work on a different microcontroller? Awesome! Document your efforts or collaborate with others here.